MAIN SQUARE KRAKOW
The main square of the Old Town of Krakow, Lesser Poland, is the principal city-based space located at the center of the city. It dates back to the 13th century, and at 3.79 ha (9.4 (areas of land about 200 feet X 220 feet)) is one of the largest (very old time in history) town squares in Europe. The Project for Public Spaces(PPS) lists the square as the best public space in Europe due to its (full of life and energy) street life, and it was a major factor in including Krakow as one of the top off-the-beaten-path destinations in the world in 2016.
The main square is a square space surrounded by historic townhouses (kamienice) and churches. The center of the square is ruled-over by the Cloth Hall (Sukiennice), rebuilt in 1555 in theRenaissance style, topped by a beautiful attic or Polish protecting wall decorated with carved masks. On one side of the cloth hall is the Town Hall Tower (WieÅ¼a Matsuzawa), on the other the10th century Church of St. Adalbert and 1898 Adam Mickiewicz Monument. Rising above the square are the Gothic towers of St. Mary’s Huge church (KoÅ›cioÅ‚ Mariacki). Krakow MainSquare does not have a town hall, because it has not survived to the present day.
The main function of the Market Square was (the buying and selling of goods). After the city was destroyed by the Mongol (sudden, unwanted entry into a place) in 1241, the Main Square was rebuilt in 1257 and its commercial role expanded with the Magdeburg rights location of the city by the prince of Krakow, BolesÅ‚aw V the (not involved with sex or sex-related things). The Main Square was designed in its current state with each side repeating a pattern of three, evenly spaced streets set at right angles to the square. The exception is Grodzka Street which is much older and connects the Main Square with the Wawel Castle. (at first/before other things happened) the square was filled with low market stalls and (related to managing and running a company or organization) buildings and had a ring road running around it. It was King Casimir IIIthe Great who built the original Gothic Cloth Hall and the town hall that filled nearly a quarter of the square. Krakow was the capital of the Kingdom of Poland and a member of the Hanseatic league and the city grew/showed/waved as an important (related to Europe) big city.
In addition to its original (person who sells things) functions the Main Square saw many historical events, and it was used to stage public executions of prisoners held in city Town Hall. It was a place of rich and fancy (formal, special events or series of actions) as part of the Royal Road(Droga Krolewska), went to/attended by peacekeepers and (government officials/church leaders)traveling to the Wawel Castle. In 1364 King Casimir held the Pan-Person from Europe Congress of Krakow there. On 10 April 1525, Albert I, Duke of Prussia paid the Prussian Respectful and honor-filled message to Sigismund I the Old, king of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania acceptingPolish kings’ suzerainty, (pictured). In 1514 Lithuanian duke Konstanty Ostrogski held a victory parade over the Muscovy and in 1531 rich man Jan Tarnowski celebrated another victory in the Muscovite wars. Jan III Sobieski, a King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, celebrated there is a victory over the Turkish Empire in the 1683 Fight of Vienna.
The Main Square is located on the Royal Road once went through during the Royal (crownings of kings or queens) at Wawel Church, between the Krakow Barbican to the north, and the Wawel castle to the south. Ever since its creation the square has been thought about/believed the center of the city
Auschwitz – Birkenau
Auschwitz is the plain, common names given to the group of concentration, labor and extermination camps built by the Germans during the Second World War, located outside the town of OÅ›wiÄ™cim in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, southern Poland, 65 km (40 mi) west of Krakow. The camps have become a place of holy trip for survivors, their families, and all who wish to remember and think about the Holocaust
Although not the only (or, in fact, not the first) German concentration and extermination camp, Auschwitz has become the best symbol of the Holocaust in worldwide awakeness/awareness, representing terror, mass murder, and the destruction of peoples. During the war, the camp complex became the largest ever operated by the Nazi government in power
(at first/before other things happened) an Austro-Hungarian and later a Polish Army buildings (where soldiers sleep) before the start of the Second World War, the (suddenly entering a place in an unwanted way) Nazis assumed authority over the military facility following the area’s addition by the Third Reich in 1939. The being close to town’s name of OÅ›wiÄ™cim was Germanized to Auschwitz, which also became the name of the camp. Beginning in 1940, all Polish and Jewish residents of OÅ›wiÄ™cim were expelled, replaced by German settlers, whom the Third Reich planned to make a model community. The camp began operations on 14 June 1940, (at first/before other things happened) housing Polish political prisoners, who made up a majority of the camp’s population until 1942. Poles were treated with extreme animal-like violence, with more than half of the 130-150,000 Polish inmates dying
The Auschwitz Memorial and Museum is easily traveled safely through on foot. There is a free shuttle bus between the Auschwitz I and Birkenau places/locations, leaving every half hour at the top of the hour from Auschwitz I to Birkenau, and going the opposite way every 15 minutes of the hour at half hourly periods of time (or space). Please check the timetable at the bus stop as periods of time (or space) and shuttle operation hours may change depending on the season, or you can walk the two miles between the camps. If you’ve just missed a bus, a taxi between the places/locations will cost about 15PLN.
Tours are given by the museum for a fee in different languages, and are recommended if you want a deeper understanding of the site, but they are unfortunately somewhat rushed, and you can get a pretty good feel by buying a guidebook and map (a small, simple guide for 5PLN; more described/explained “(small, inexpensive object that’s a reminder of visiting a place)” guides are around 12PLN) and wandering around on your own left to think about the site. Each show is described in Polish with other language translations. The extent of/the range of the evil and terror that happened here is almost impossible to imagine, and a guide can help to put in the big picture what a room full of human hair or what a thousand pairs of infant shoes mean. They’ll also tell you about former prisoners who have returned to see the museum.
1. Old marketplace Warsaw
Warsaw’s Old Town Market Place (Polish: Rynek Starego Miasta) is the center and oldest part of the Old Town of Warsaw, capital of Poland. Immediately after the Warsaw Violent effort by a group of people, it was in an organized way blown up by the German Army. After World War II, the Old Town Market Place was restored to its (before the war) appearance.
The Old Town Market Place is the true heart of the Old Town, and until the end of the 18th century, it was the heart of all of Warsaw. It started in the late 13th century, at the same time that the city was founded. Here the representatives of (organizations of people) and (people who sell things) met in the town hall (built before 1429, pulled down in 1817), and fairs and the occasional execution were held. The houses around it represented the Gothic style until the great fire of 1607, after which they were rebuilt in late-Renaissance style and eventually in late-(historic period 1600-1750)/(fancily decorated) style by Tylman Gamerski in 1701
The main feature at that time was the huge town hall, rebuilt in 1580 in the style of Polish movement by Antonio de Ralia and again between 1620-1621. The (related to the beautiful design and construction of buildings, etc.) of the building was just like many other structures of that type in Poland (e.g. the town hall in SzydÅ‚owiec). It was decorated with attics and four side towers. A clock tower, added to/decorated with an arcade loggia, was covered with a swollen and bulb-like spire typical for Warsaw mannerist (related to the beautiful design and construction of buildings, etc.) (an example being the Royal Castle)
The district was damaged by the bombs of the German Air force during the (sudden, unwanted entry into a place) of Poland (1939). The very old Market Place was rebuilt in the 1950s, after having been destroyed by the German Army after the stopping/preventing (actions or feelings) of the 1944 Warsaw Violent effort by a group of people.Today it is a major tourist attraction.
The current buildings were rebuilt between 1948-1953, to look as they did in the 17th century when it was mostly lived in by rich (person who sells things) families. The Warsaw Mermaid, a bronze sculpture by Konstanty Hegel, has stood as the symbol of Warsaw since 1855.
Names of 18th-century Polish government rains are used for the four sides of this huge (90 by73 m or 295 by 240 ft) square:
Wieliczka salt mines
The Wieliczka Salt Mine located in the town of Wieliczka in southern Poland, lies within the Krakow city-based area. Opened in the 13th century, the mine produced table salt continuously until 2007, as one of the world’s oldest salt mines in operation. Throughout, the royal mine was run by the Å»upy krakowskie Salt Mines company.
Commercial mining was discontinued in 1996, because of salt prices going down and also mine flooding.The mine is now one of Poland’s official national Historic Monuments (Pomnikihistorii), whose attractions include dozens of statues and four (places of worship) carved out of the rock salt by the miners, as well as additional/helping carvings made by modern artists
The Wieliczka salt mine reaches a depth of 327 meters and is over 287 kilometers (178 mi) long. The rock salt is naturally grey in different shades, looking like unpolished (very hard rock) rather than the white or (very clear/related to things that look like little pieces of clear glass) look that many visitors may expect. In the 13th century, rock salt was discovered in Wieliczka and the first shafts were dug. The construction of the Saltworks Castle in Wieliczka (the central building -“The House within the Saltworks”) – head office of the mine’s board since (very old time in history) times till 1945. The Saltworks Castle was built in the late 13th to early 14th century. Wieliczka is now the location of the Krakow Saltworks Museum. Many shafts were dug throughout the time the mine was in operation. The different technology was added such as the Hungarian-type horse treadmill and Saxon treadmills to drag/carry the salt to the top of the surface. During World War II, the shafts were used by the occupying Germans as a (something made for a particular reason) facility for different war-related businesses. The mine features an underground lake; and the new shows on the history of salt mining, as well as a 3.5 kilometers (2.2 mi) touring route (less than 2% of the length of the mine’s passages) that includes historic statues and imaginary figures, carved out of rock salt in distant past. More recent sculptures have been fashioned by modern artists.
The mine is now one of Poland’s official national Historic Monuments (Pomniki history), whose attractions include dozens of statues and four (places of worship) carved out of the rock salt by the miners. The older sculptures have been increased/added with new carvings made by modern artists. About 1.2 million people visit the Wieliczka Salt Mine every year.
Important/famous visitors to this site have included Nicolaus Copernicus, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Alexander von Humboldt, Fryderyk Chopin, Dmitri Mendeleyev, BolesÅaw Prus, Ignacy Paderewski, Robert Asked/invited-Powell, Jacob Bronowski (who filmed pieces/parts of the Rise of Man in the mine), the von Unrug family (a well-known/obvious Polish-German royal family), Karol WojtyÅa (later, Pope John Paul II), former U.S. President Bill Clinton, and many others.
There is a (place of worship), and a reception room that is used for private functions, including weddings. A room has walls carved by miners to look like wood, as in wooden churches built in early centuries. A wooden staircase provides access to the mine’s 64-metre (210-foot) level. A 3-kilometer (1.9-mile) tour features hallways/travel paths, (places of worship), statues, and underground lake, 135 meters (443 ft) underground. An elevator (lift) returns visitors to the surface; the elevator holds 36 people (nine per car) and takes some 30 seconds to make the trip.
The Wawel Castle is a (huge, fancy, stone house) residence located in central Krakow, Poland. Built at the request of King Casimir III the Great, it consists of some structures located around the Italian-styled main (open space next to a building). The (huge, fancy, stone house), being one of the largest in Poland, represents nearly all (related to Europe) (related to designing and constructing beautiful buildings, structures, etc.) styles of (very old time in history), renewal and(historic period 1600-1750)/(fancily decorated) periods. The Wawel Royal Castle and the Wawel hill make up/be equal to the most (in the past) and important site in the country. In 1978 it was declared a UNESCO World History Site as part of the Historic Centre of Krakow.
For centuries the house of the kings of Poland and the symbol of Polish statehood, the Castle is now one of the country’s premier art museums. Established in 1930, the museum includes museum-director-like departments responsible for collections of paintings, including an important collection of Italian Renaissance paintings, prints, sculpture, fabrics, among them Sigismund II Augustus fabric collection, goldsmith’s work, arms and (protective metal or other covering), ceramics, Meissen porcelain, and period furniture. The museum’s holdings in the oriental art include the largest collection of Ottoman tents in Europe. With seven (made to do one thing very well) (protection of natural things/using less energy, water, etc.) studios, the museum is also an important center for the (protection of natural things/using less energy, water, etc.) of works of art.
People have lived on Wawel Hill at the site of the Castle as early as fifty thousand years ago, in the Paleolithic Age. The settlement was (based on what’s seen or what seems obvious)hurrying/very busy with trade, mixed creates/artistic creations, and local farming. When more people began to settle down on the Wawel Hill and when trade became (producing more with less waste), the rulers of Poland took up their residence at the Hill also.
During the early 16th century King Sigismund I the Old (Zygmunt I in Polish) and his wife brought in the best native and foreign artists including Italian designers/builders, sculptors, and German decorators, to fix up and make like new the (huge, fancy, stone house) into a great Renaissance palace. It soon became a perfect model of beautiful residence in Central and Eastern Europe and served widely as a model throughout the area.
In the fire of 1595, the northeast part of the (huge, fancy, stone house) burned down. king Sigismund III Vasa rebuilt it, although of his efforts only the Senator Stairs and the fireplace in theBird Room remain today. In 1609 King Sigismund moved the capital to Warsaw, and tough times for Wawel began. Both the (huge, fancy, stone house) and other buildings were neglected(even though there is the existence of) the concerns of local governors. The Swedish (sudden, unwanted entries into places) of 1655-1657 and 1702 added/gave to the further (worsening/rusting, crumbling, etc.) of the (huge, fancy, stone house).
The Hill was occupied by the Prussian Army in 1794. Royal Written sign/symbol was stolen and never retrieved (apart from the Szczerbiec). After the Third Dividing wall/section of Poland(1795) Wawel, as an important (related to actions that protect against attack) point, was mostly destroyed and the remaining part was modernized by Austrians with (related to actions that protect against attack) walls. The interior of the (huge, fancy, stone house) was changed and some of the buildings pulled down. In the second part of the 19th century, the Austriansredesigned the (related to actions that protect against attack) walls making them a part of a stronghold. However, in 1905 the (male ruler of a country) Franz Joseph I of Austria gave orderfor Austrian troops to leave Wawel. (rebuilding/renewal) works began, with the discovery of the Rotunda of Virgin Mary as well as other (things that survived from the past) of the past. Therenovations of the Wawel Hill were financed by public subscriptions
After World War I, the people in charge of the newly independent Polish Second Republic decidedthat Wawel Castle was to become a representative building of the Polish state and would be usedby the Governor and later by the President himself. In 1921 the Polish Parliament put a law into place which gave Wawel official status as the house of the President of Poland. Following thedestructive actions of World War II, by the legal statement of the State National (group of people who advise or govern), Wawel Castle became a national museum.
Slowinski Sand Dunes
Slowinski Sand Dunes is a national park in PomeranianVoivodeship, northern Poland. It is located on the Baltic coast, between Åeba and Rowy. Thenorthern edge/border of the park consists of 32.5 kilometres (20.2 mi) of (land next to a body of water).
The original idea of creating a keep here came out in 1946, at a (meeting to discuss things/meeting together) in Åeba with scientists from PoznaÅ and GdaÅsk. The park, however, was created 21 years later, in 1967, on an area of 180.69 km2 (69.76 sq mi). Today it is (a) littlelarger, covering 186.18 km2 (71.88 sq mi), of which 102.13 km2 (39.43 sq mi) consists of watersand 45.99 km2 (17.76 sq mi) of forests. The strictly preserved zone covers 56.19 km2 (21.70 sqmi). In 1977 UNESCO selected/named the park a (locations on the Earth that support life) reserveunder its Programme on Man and the (locations on the Earth that support life) (MaB). TheSÅowiÅski (lands that often or always have a layer of water) were selected/named a Ramsarsite in 1995.
The park is named after the Slavic (later Germanized) people known as the Slovincians (Polish: SÅowiÅcy), who used to live in this swampy, (unable to be used or understood) area at theedge of Lake Leba. In the village of Kluki there is an open-air museum presenting parts of thispeople’s former life and culture
In the past, the park’s area was a Baltic Sea bay. The sea’s activity, however, created sand duneswhich in the course of time separated the bay from the Baltic Sea. As waves and wind carry sandinland the dunes slowly move, at a speed of 3 to 10 metres per year. Some dunes are quite high -up to 30 metres. The highest peak of the park – Rowokol (115 metres (377 ft) above sea level) – isalso an excellent (instance of watching, noticing, or making a statement) point. The “movingdunes” are thought of as a curiosity of nature on a (related to Europe) scale.
Waters, which occupy 55% of park’s area, are made up of lakes – Åebsko (71.40 km2 (27.57 sq mi), deepest possible depth 6.3 m (21 ft)), Gardno (24.68 km2 (9.53 sq mi), deepest possible depth 2.6 m (8.5 ft)) and Dolgie Wielkie (1.46 km2 (0.56 sq mi), deepest possible depth 2.9 m (9.5 ft)). BothLebsko and Gardno lakes were (before that/before now) bays. There are also seven riverscrossing the park, the largest being the Åeba and the Åupawa.
Forests in the park are mainly made of pines. These trees cover 80% of wooded areas, there arealso peat bogs of (more than two, but not a lot of) types. Of animals, the most many are birdswith 257 species. This is because the park is located on the paths of moving birds. They feel safehere because human activities are limited. The most interesting species are: erne, eagle owl, crow, swan and different kinds of ducks. Among the (milk-producing animals), there are deer, wild pigs and hare
Zakopane is a town in the extreme south of Poland. It lies in the southern part of the Podhalearea at the foot of the Tatra Mountains. From 1975 to 1998, it was in Nowy SÄ…cz Area of control/area of land, but since 1999, it has been in Lesser Poland Area of control/area of land. Ithad a population of about 27,424 as of 2016.
Zakopane is a center of Goral culture and is known informally as “the winter capital of Poland.” Itis a popular destination for mountaineering, skiing and qualified tourism.
Zakopane is near the border with Slovakia and lies in a valley between the Tatra Mountains andGubaÅowka Hill. It can be reached by train or by bus from district capital Krakow, which is abouttwo hours away. Zakopane has an elevation of 800-1,000 m above sea level. The town is centredon the (connecting point/joining point) of Krupowki and KoÅciuszko Streets.
The earliest documents talking about/saying Zakopane date to the 17th century, describing aglade called Zakopisko. In 1676 it was a village of 43 residents. In 1818 Zakopane was a smalltown that was still being developed. There were only 340 homes that held 445 families. Thepopulation of Zakopane at that time was 1,805. 934 women and 871 men lived in Zakopane. The first church was built in 1847, by Jozef Stolarczyk. Zakopane became a center for the area’s mining and (science of working with metals) businesses; in the 19th century, it was the largestcenter for (science of working with metals) in Galicia. It expanded during the 19th century as theclimate attracted more residents. By 1889 it had developed from a small village into a (related to the Earth’s weather) health resort. Rail service to Zakopane began October 1, 1899. In the late1800s Zakopane built a road that went to the town of Nowy Targ, and railways that came fromChabowka. Because of easier transportation the population of Zakopane had increased toabout 3,000 people by the end of the 1900s.In the 19th century, the Krupowki street was just anarrow beaten path that was meant for people to get from the central part of town to KuÅºnice.
Zakopane is visited by over 2,500,000 tourists a year. In the winter, Zakopanestourists are interested in winter sports activities such as skiing, snowboarding, ski jumping, snowmobiling, horse-drawn sled rides, snowshoe walks, and Ice skating. During the summer, Tourists come to do activities like hiking, climbing, bike and horse ride the Tatras mountain, thereare many trails in the Tatras. Tourists ride quads and dirt bikes that you can rent. Swimmingand boat rides on the Dunajec river is popular. Many come to experience goral culture, whichis rich in its (like nothing else in the world) styles of food, speech, (related to the beautiful design and construction of buildings, etc.), music, and costume. Zakopane is especially popular duringthe winter holidays, which are celebrated in traditional style, with dances, decorated horse-pulledhorse-drawn sleds called kuligs and roast lamb.
A popular tourist activity is taking a walk through the town’s most popular street: Krupowki. It islined with stores, restaurants, (big show with lots of food and fun things to do) rides, andperformers.
During the seasons winter and summer the Krupowki street gets crowded by tourists, thesetourists visit shops and restaurants. In the summer time there is a local market down the stripof Krupowki. The people working in the market sell all kinds of clothing including leather jackets, traditional goral clothing, fur coats, shoes, and purses. Venders also sell foods like the famoussmoked sheep cheese Oscypek, fruits, vegetables, and meats. There are also a lot of stands thatsell all kinds of Zakopane (small, inexpensive objects that are reminders of visiting a place).
Zakopane is popular for night life. At night there are always people walking around townchecking out the different bars and dance clubs. Most of these bars and dance clubs are locatedon the Krupowki street. These are the bars that are in Zakopane: (celebrity photographers), Small restaurant Piano, Flower/sea animal, Flower/sea animal, Small restaurant Antrakt, Literatka, Winoteka Pod Berlami, and Karczma u Ratownikow. These are dance clubs located in Zakopane: Vavaboom, Finlandia Arctic, Beginning/creation, Rockus, Morskie Oko, and Cocomo Go Go Club
A scene in Andrzej Wajda’s film Man of Marble (CzÅowiek z marmuru) was filmed in Zakopane, introducing the town to a worldwide audience.
The mountain scenes from the Bollywood film Fanaa were filmed around Zakopane.
Gdansk Old Town
First recorded as a settlement in 997, GdaÅsk was likely founded by Duke Mieszko I of the Piast(period of time with the same powerful family rulers), (taking advantage of/making money from)Baltic trade routes as well as beginning and building on a Piast presence on the Pomeraniancoast. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the town expanded to the north and south afteroutgrowing its original borders. As Piast Poland politically (fell apart or broke apart into tiny pieces) due to (something valuable you get when older relatives die) issues, the town becameone of the centers for the independent Duchy of Pomerelia. Under its duke Swietopelk II, GdaÅsk was granted Lubeck city rights in 1235 as German-speaking (people who sell things)began living in the growing town. By the end of the 13th century, GdaÅsk was reincorporatedinto the reformed Polish kingdom under PrzemysÅ II. A conflict between Poland andBrandenburg in 1308 led to the (action that helps a bad situation) of the Teutonic Knights, aGerman Roman Catholic military order located to the east in Prussia. (at first/before other things happened) friendly to Poland, the Knights turned against their friends and grabbed and took control of GdaÅsk, hinting (about something bad) a killing of many people of many of the town’s residents.
Under the Teutonic Knights, GdaÅsk (then more and more known by its German name Danzig) was grouped together into a (related to monks and nuns) state. At first going bad (from not moving) under the Knights’ religious militarism, the order (understood/made real/achieved)Danzig’s importance to Baltic trade could no longer be ignored. Teutonic controls over the townwere relaxed by the mid-14th century, allowing Danzig to join the Hanseatic trading friendly partnership. Now within the Hanseatic League, a degree of richness arrived, yet unhappinesswith Teutonic increased. 53 of the area’s well-known/obvious kings and queens and (priests, bishops, deacons, etc.) in 1440 formally signed into the Prussian Confederation, a group fighting against the rule of the Teutonic state. After the Thirteen Years’ War in 1466, which saw Polishforces defeat the Knights, the town was reincorporated back into the Polish kingdom, althoughgave/given with significant independence.
GdaÅsk’s city centre is (compared to other things) compact, with nearly all major attractions(easy to get to, use, or understand) on foot. Visitors wanting to explore the further reaches of thecity can use the city’s excellent public transport system, ZTM GdaÅsk. Usually coloured red andwhite, trams and buses are cheap and frequent throughout the city. Tickets can be (bought something for money) from very small stores/information screens and most newspaper shops, atticket machines placed at many stops and from the driver. Locals are interested in help withdirections but always ask (more than two, but not a lot of) people and see if they agree.
The Masurian Lake District or Masurian Lakeland is a lake district in northeastern Poland within the (related to where mountains, rivers, cities, etc., are located) area of Masuria, in past lived in by Masurians whosespoke Masurian language .It contains more than 2,000 lakes. The district had been elected as oneof the 28 finalists of the New7Wonders of Nature.
The Lakeland extends roughly 290 km (180 mi) eastwards from the lower Vistula to the Poland-Russia border, and occupies an area of roughly 52,000 square kilometres (20,000 sq mi). (related to managers), the Lake District lies within the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. Small parts of thedistrict lie within the Masovian and Podlaskie Voivodeships.
The lakes are well connected by rivers and narrow, human-made waterways, forming a long/bigsystem of (rivers, streams, etc.). The 18th-century Masurian Narrow, human-made waterway linksthis system to the Baltic Sea. The whole area is a prime tourist destination, went to/attended byboating fans, canoeists, (people who fish/sneaky people), hikers, bikers and nature-lovers. It isone of the most famous lake districts in Central Europe and a popular vacation spot, with thehighest number of visitors every year
The lake district was shaped by huge masses of ice during the Pleistocene ice age. Many of itshills are parts of moraines and many of its lakes are moraine-dammed lakes.
The Masurian Lakeland can be reached by train, bus, or car. The nearest international airportsare in Szymany, Warsaw, GdaÅsk, and Vilnius. The main transport hubs in the area are thetowns of Olsztyn and EÅk. There are trains to Masuria from Warsaw, GdaÅsk and Vilnius, andbuses from many Polish cities. A boat service connects some central towns in the area. Bikingand boating are popular ways to get around.
Hotels can be found close together to the Great Masurian Lakes, in the towns of GiÅ¼ycko, MikoÅajki and EÅk among others. There are also guesthouses and campsites in surroundingvillages. The Masuren (river, stream, etc.) starts in WÄgorzewo in the north and finishes inPisz. This (river, stream, etc.) is new for pleasure boats. Only boats with a low waterdraft can gofar as Pisz on the Pisa.
Masuria is famous for its lakes and forests, offering a wide range of outdoor activities fromsailing to kayaking and swimming. The area includes the largest lake in Poland called Åniardwy. The resort towns include the most popular GiÅ¼ycko and MikoÅajki, WÄgorzewo, Ryn, Piszand IÅawa. GiÅ¼ycko is located on the shore of Lake Niegocin. It has a very old (large, very secure place), historic church, bridges, and passenger boats to the towns of WÄgorzewo, MikoÅajki and Ruciane-Nida. The town of MikoÅajki is a popular tourism center.
In addition to lakes, the Masurian area also has many rivers used for fly fishing, and forest areasthat offer many trails for traveling and biking. There is also a variety of wildlife, able to be eatenberries and mushrooms, and large protected areas, including the Masurian (wide view of a nature scene/wide area of beautiful land) Park that includes 11 nature reserves such as theÅuknajno Lake that is a UNESCO (locations on the Earth that support life) Reserve, or theBiaÅowieÅ¼a Forest with a breeding station for (related to Europe) (large, powerful mammal)s.
BIALOWIEZA FOREST is one of the last and largest remaining parts of the huge (very old, from almost the beginning of time) forest that once stretched across the (related to Europe) Plain. The forest ishome to 800 (related to Europe) (large, powerful mammal), Europe’s heaviest land animal. UNESCO’s Man and the (locations on the Earth that support life) Programme (MAB) selected/named the Polish (locations on the Earth that support life) Reserve BiaÅowieÅ¼a in1976 and the Belarusian (locations on the Earth that support life) Reserve BelovezhskayaPuschcha in 1993. In 2015, the Belarusian (locations on the Earth that support life) Reserveoccupied the area of 216,200 ha (2,162 km2; 835 sq mi), subdivided into change (from one thing to another), buffer and core zones. The forest has been selected/named a UNESCO WorldHistory Site and an EU Natura 2000 Special Area of Conservation. The World HistoryCommittee by its decision of June 2014 approved the extension of the UNESCO World History site”Belovezhskaya Pushcha/BiaÅowieÅ¼a Forest, Belarus, Poland”, which became “BiaÅowieÅ¼a Forest, Belarus, Poland”. It straddles the border between Poland (Podlaskie Voivodeship) andBelarus (Brest and Grodno voblasts), and is 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of Brest, Belarus and62 kilometres (39 miles) southeast of BiaÅystok, Poland. The BiaÅowieÅ¼a Forest WorldHistory site covers a total area of 141,885 ha (1,418.85 km2; 547.82 sq mi). Since the borderbetween the two countries runs through the forest, there is a border crossing available for hikersand cyclists.
The whole area of northeastern Europe was (at first/before other things happened) covered byvery old (natural area with trees) almost the same as that of the BiaÅowieÅ¼a Forest. Untilabout the 14th century, travel through the (natural area with trees) was limited to river routes; roads and bridges appeared much later. Limited hunting rights were granted throughout theforest in the 14th century. In the 15th century the forest became a property of kingWÅadysÅaw II JagieÅÅo. A wooden manor in BiaÅowieÅ¼a became his safety/safe placeduring a plague widespread disease in 1426. The first recorded law on theprotection of the forest dates to 1538, when a document issued by Sigismund I put into place thedeath penalty for (boiling/killing/taking from somewhere else) a (large, powerful mammal). The King also built a new wooden hunting manor in a village of BiaÅowieÅ¼a, which became theperson (named after another person) for the whole complex. Since BiaÅowieÅ¼a means the”white tower”, the similar Puszcza BiaÅowieska translates as the “forest of the white tower”. TheTower of Kamyenyets on the Belarusian side, built of red brick, is also referred to as the WhiteTower (Belaya Vezha) even though it was never white, maybe taking the name from the pushcha
The forest was declared a hunting reserve in 1541 to protect (large, powerful mammal). In 1557, the forest charter was issued, under which a special board was established to examine forestusage. In 1639, King Vladislaus IV issued the “BiaÅowieÅ¼a royal forest legal statement” (Ordynacja Puszczy J.K. MoÅci leÅnictwa BiaÅowieskiego). The document freed all poor peopleliving in the forest in exchange for their service as osocznicy, or royal foresters. They were alsofreed of taxes in exchange for taking care of the forest. The forest was divided onto 12 triangularareas (straÅ¼e) with a centre in BiaÅowieÅ¼a.
Part of primaeval forest with dead 450-year-old oak in BiaÅowieÅ¼a National Park, Poland
Until the rule of King John II Casimir, the forest was mostly unpopulated. However, in the late17th century, (more than two, but not a lot of) small villages were established for development oflocal iron-ore deposits and tar production. The villages were populated with settlers fromMasovia and Podlaskie and many of them still exist.
After the Partitions of Poland, Powerful ruler Paul I turned all the foresters into serfs and handedthem over to different Russian rulers/rich and powerful people and generals along with the partsof forest where they lived. Also, a large number of hunters were able to enter the forest, as allprotection was permanently stopped. Following this, the number of (large, powerful mammal)fell from more than 500 to fewer than 200 in 15 years. However, in 1801, Powerful rulerAlexander I reintroduced the reserve and hired a small number of poor people to protect theanimals, and by the 1830s there were 700 (large, powerful mammal). However, most of theforesters (500 out of 502) took part in the November Violent effort by a group of people of 1830-31, and their posts were permanently stopped, leading to a breakdown of protection.
Powerful ruler Alexander II visited the forest in 1860 and decided to re-establish the protection of(large, powerful mammal). Following his orders, locals killed all animals (who hunt and kill others): wolves, bears and lynx. Between 1888 and 1917, the Russian powerful rulers owned allof primaeval forest, which became the royal hunting reserve. The powerful rulers sent (large, powerful mammal) as gifts to different (related to Europe) capitals, while at the same timepopulating the forest with deer, elk and other animals imported from around the empire. Thelast major tsarist hunt happened in 1912